This problem involves determining how pairs of people who may be part of a "family tree" are related.
In this problem the child-parent pair p q denotes that p is the child of q . In determining relationships between names we use the following definitions:
By definition p is the "child" of q if and only if the pair p q appears in the input sequence of child-parent pairs (i.e., p is a 0-descendent of q); p is the "grand child" of q if and only if p is a 1-descendent of q; and
p is the "great great ... great" grandchild of q --------------------- n occurrencesif and only if p is an (n+1)-descendent of q.
By definition p is the "parent" of q if and only if the pair q p appears in the input sequence of child-parent pairs (i.e., p is a 0-ancestor of q); p is the "grand parent" of q if and only if p is a 1-ancestor of q; and
p is the "great great ... great" grand parent of q --------------------- n occurrencesif and only if p is an (n+1)-ancestor of q.
By definition p and q are "cousins" if and only if they are related (i.e., there is a path from p to q in the implicit undirected parent-child tree). Let r represent the least common ancestor of p and q (i.e., no descendent of r is an ancestor of both p and q), where p is an m-descendent of r and q is an n-descendent of r.
Then, by definition, cousins p and q are "k-th cousins" if and only if k = min (n, m), and, also by definition, p and q are "cousins removed j times" if and only if j = | n - m | (that's absolute value).
A large sample data file can be used to check your solution. Here's the corresponding output.
The parent-child pairs are followed by a sequence of query pairs in the same format as the parent-child pairs, i.e., each name in a query pair is a sequence of lower-case alphabetic characters and periods, and names are separated by one or more spaces. Query pairs are terminated by a pair whose first component is the string "no.child".
There will be a maximum of 300 different names overall (parent-child and query pairs). All names will be fewer than 31 characters in length. There will be no more than 100 query pairs.
alonzo.church oswald.veblen stephen.kleene alonzo.church dana.scott alonzo.church martin.davis alonzo.church pat.fischer hartley.rogers mike.paterson david.park dennis.ritchie pat.fischer hartley.rogers alonzo.church les.valiant mike.paterson bob.constable stephen.kleene david.park hartley.rogers no.child no.parent stephen.kleene bob.constable hartley.rogers stephen.kleene les.valiant alonzo.church les.valiant dennis.ritchie dennis.ritchie les.valiant pat.fischer michael.rabin no.child no.parent
parent sibling great great grand child 1 cousin removed 1 1 cousin removed 1 no relation
This problem deals with determining whether binary trees represented as LISP S-expressions possess a certain property.
Given a binary tree of integers, you are to write a program that determines whether there exists a root-to-leaf path whose nodes sum to a specified integer. For example, in the tree shown below there are exactly four root-to-leaf paths. The sums of the paths are 27, 22, 26, and 18.
Binary trees are represented in the input file as LISP S-expressions having the following form.
|Kind of Tree||Representation in File|
|tree||empty tree OR (integer tree tree)|
The tree diagrammed above is represented by the expression
(5 (4 (11 (7 () ()) (2 () ()) ) ()) (8 (13 () ()) (4 () (1 () ()) ) ) )
Note that with this formulation all leaves of a tree are of the form (integer () () )
Since an empty tree has no root-to-leaf paths, any query as to whether a path exists whose sum is a specified integer in an empty tree must be answered negatively.
The input consists of a sequence of test cases in the form of integer/tree pairs. Each test case consists of an integer followed by one or more spaces followed by a binary tree formatted as an S-expression as described above. All binary tree S-expressions will be valid, but expressions may be spread over several lines and may contain spaces. There will be one or more test cases in an input file, and input is terminated by end-of-file.
There should be one line of output for each test case (integer/tree pair) in the input file. For each pair I,T (I represents the integer, T represents the tree) the output is the string yes if there is a root-to-leaf path in T whose sum is I and no if there is no path in T whose sum is I.
22 (5(4(11(7()())(2()()))()) (8(13()())(4()(1()())))) 20 (5(4(11(7()())(2()()))()) (8(13()())(4()(1()())))) 10 (3 (2 (4 () () ) (8 () () ) ) (1 (6 () () ) (4 () () ) ) ) 5 ()
yes no yes no
A sample data file can be used to check your solution. Here's the corresponding output.