Codewarrior is an IDE for developing C++ and Java programs on three platforms: Windows 95/98/NT, MacOS, and Linux. The Linux IDE is an environment built around the GNU/egcs g++ compiler. The discussion and screen shots in this document are based on the Windows version of Codewarrior, but should apply to some degree to the other platforms.
Creating a program in Codewarrior requires three steps, each will be discussed in some detail.
I typically create one project, then add and remove source files from it each time I write a program. Since I link the same libraries with almost all the programs I write, and since I use the same settings for the IDE for each program, reusing one project makes sense. It's very simple to remove source files and add new ones as we'll see.
If you're creating a program for the first time in Codewarrior you'll need to create a project. Choose the File -> New Project option from the File menu, then click on the + to expand, in turn, Win32-x86, C,C++, and C++ Console App as shown below.
|Creating a new project using Metrowerks Codewarrior|
You'll need to name the project and browse to create a folder for it. Codewarrior projects typically have a .mcp suffix (Metrowerks Codewarrior Project), which is added automatically if you don't use a suffix when providing a name. This default project contains one source file, hello.cpp. The first thing I typically do is remove this source file and add my own.
There are two ways to remove a file from a project.
|Removing a file from a Codewarrior project.|
You'll also need to add source files and libraries to a project. Typically, source files are added to the folder named Source that's part of the project, but they can be added anywhere. The first time you create a project you may need to add libraries too. Libraries are added in the same way that files are added, but typically the libraries are placed at the end of the project. The diagram below shows a project named generic.mcp with one source file named bday.cpp and two added libraries, dtaplib.lib and CMUlib.lib. The figure shows the user selecting Project -> Add Files from the Project menu to add a new source file or library to the project.
If you're adding source, you should select the Source folder before selecting Add Files so that the source file is added to the Source folder. I often forget to do this and the .cpp source file is added at the end of the project with the libraries shown in the diagram below. You can leave the .cpp file there, but I usually click-and-drag it to the source folder within the project.
|Adding a file to a Codewarrior project.|
When you first create a project, it may be in what's called Release mode. You can see a project's mode in the Project box's target section (there's a litle target icon). You should change Release mode to Debug mode by clicking in the target section and choosing C++ Console App Debug as shown in the diagram below. At some point you'll want to use the symbolic debugger to find errors in your program; your project must be in Debug mode to support debugging.
|Changing a Codewarrior project from Release to Debug to support symbolic debugging.|
Whenever you add a file to a Codewarrior project, the include path for the project is updated so that the directory in which the added file is located becomes part of the include path. This is a very useful feature and means that you don't often need to manually change the include path. However, it is sometimes necessary to explicitly add directories to the include path. To add a directory, first choose Edit -> Console App Settings from the Edit menu. Then select AccessPaths from the Target Settings section of the dialog that pops up as shown in the diagram below.
|Adding a directory to the include path in Codewarrior.|
Click on the Add button and browse to the folder you want to add. You can remove directories by selecting the directory and then clicking on the Remove button. To save the changes you make, you must click the Save button in the lower-left corner of the dialog box. To close the dialog box, click on the close-window icon marked with an x in the upper right corner.
Rather than storing ten or twenty source files for classes and functions you use in every project, you can create a library of compiled object files and add the library to the project. In Codewarrior it's very simple to create a library.
|The source files in dtaplib.lib, the library of Tapestry classes and functions.|
I typically create a separate project for each library I use so that I can update the library by adding a new class or recompiling changes to an old class. To create a library, start a project as described earlier. Then add all the source files to the project that you want to be part of the library. The source files that are part of dtaplib.lib are shown in the diagram above. I call the library dtaplib because it's the debuggable tapestry library.
Once you've added all the source files to the project, you must change settings so that the compiler will generate a library instead of an executable program. None of the source files added to the library should have a main function; each source file should be the implementation of related non-templated classes or functions. There's no reason to add templated classes or functions to a library since they're not compiled, they're instantiated. It is possible to add an instantiated template to a library, but we don't discuss that here. To change a project so that it generates a library choose Edit -> Console App Settings from the Edit menu. Then choose x86 Target from the Target Settings section of the dialog box that pops up. Click on the Project Type box and choose Library (LIB) as shown in the diagram below.
|Changing a project in Codewarrior so that it generates a library.|
You'll need to specify a name for the library too (use a .lib suffix), that's done in the same dialog box in the text box labeled File Name. Once you've changed the settings so that a library will be created, you must make the library. To make the library, choose Project -> Make from the Project menu. You must choose Make to create the library, choosing Build compiles the files, but doesn't actually create the library. You'll notice that the Run option of the Project menu is grayed out since a library isn't an executable.
You run a program in Codewarrior by selecting Project -> Run from the Project menu or using the shortcut F5 key. To run a program, the IDE first determines if any source files need to be recompiled because they've changed, or header files they used have changed. After recompiling and relinking, the program is executed.
You can compile a source file without executing a program by choosing the Compile option from the Project menu. Choosing Bring Up To Date compiles all out-of-date source but doesn't run the linker or execute the program. You can also debug a program rather than execute it by choosing the Debug option. Other selections from the Project menu are mostly self-explanatory. Occasionally it's useful to select Remove Object Code which forces all source to be recompiled and removes what may be out-of-date object files. When I think a program should compile and link but it doesn't, I'll try removing all the object files and recompiling.
Codewarrior generates a warning if you don't include a prototype for a function, even if the function appears before it's called. This annoying warning can be turned off by choosing Edit -> Console App Settings from the Edit menu, then selecting C/C++ Language from the Language Settings section of the dialog box. Unselect the Require Function Prototypes as shown in the diagram below.
|Turning off Require Function Prototypes in a Codewarrior project.|
You may want to select all warnings when compiling. To change the warnings in a project use the same dialog box used for changing the Require Function Prototypes shown in the diagram above. but choose the C/C++ Warnings option from the Language Settings section. You can add all warnings, or deselect those you don't want. For example, Illegal Pragmas in system files are often flagged, but they're typically not part of programs you write so you may want to turn that warning off.