Index of /csed/tapestry/data/stanford.graph

Icon  Name                    Last modified      Size  Description
[DIR] Parent Directory - [TXT] README 12-Sep-2004 22:03 12K [   ] cities.dvi 12-Sep-2004 22:03 6.6K [   ] cities.log 12-Sep-2004 22:03 239 [TXT] cities.texmap 12-Sep-2004 22:03 6.0K [TXT] games.dat 12-Sep-2004 22:03 14K [TXT] knuth.dat 12-Sep-2004 22:03 69K [TXT] lisa.dat 12-Sep-2004 22:03 112K [TXT] miles.dat 12-Sep-2004 22:03 41K [TXT] miles_span.w 12-Sep-2004 22:03 68K

The Stanford GraphBase is copyright 1993 by Stanford University

These files may be freely copied and distributed, provided that
no changes whatsoever are made. All users are asked to help keep
the Stanford GraphBase sources consistent and ``uncorrupted,''
identical everywhere in the world. Changes are permissible only
if the changed file is given a new name, different from the names of
existing files listed below, and only if the changed file is
clearly identified as not being part of the Stanford GraphBase.
The author has tried his best to produce correct and useful programs,
in order to help promote computer science research, but no warranty
of any kind should be assumed.


The standard Stanford GraphBase consists of the following files:

1) Data files
      anna.dat     Anna Karenina (used by gb_books)
      david.dat    David Copperfield (used by gb_books)
      econ.dat     US economic input and output (used by gb_econ)
      games.dat    College football scores, 1990 (used by gb_games)
      homer.dat    The Iliad (used by gb_books)
      huck.dat     Huckleberry Finn (used by gb_books)
      jean.dat     Les Miserables (used by gb_books)
      lisa.dat     Mona Lisa pixels (used by gb_lisa)
      miles.dat    Mileage between North American cities (used by gb_miles)
      roget.dat    Cross references in Roget's Thesaurus (used by gb_roget)
      words.dat    Five-letter words of English (used by (gb_words)
2) CWEB program files
  a) Kernel routines
      gb_flip.w    System-independent random number generator
      gb_graph.w   Data structures for graphs
      gb_io.w      Input/output routines
      gb_sort.w    Sorting routine for linked lists
  b) Graph generating routines
      gb_basic.w   Standard building blocks and graph operations
      gb_books.w   Graphs based on world literature
      gb_econ.w    Graphs based on US inter-industry flow
      gb_games.w   Graphs based on college football games
      gb_gates.w   Graphs based on combinational logic
      gb_lisa.w    Graphs based on Leonardo's Mona Lisa
      gb_miles.w   Graphs based on highway distances
      gb_plane.w   Planar graphs
      gb_raman.w   Ramanujan graphs (expanders)
      gb_rand.w    Random graphs
      gb_roget.w   Graphs based on Roget's Thesaurus
      gb_words.w   Graphs based on 5-letter words of English
   c) Demonstration routines
      assign_lisa.w      The assignment problem, using Mona Lisa
      book_components.w  Biconnected components, using the plots of books
      econ_order.w       Heuristic solution to an optimum permutation problem
      football.w         Heuristic solution to a longest-path problem
      girth.w            Empirical study of Ramanujan graphs
      ladders.w          Shortest paths in word graphs
      miles_span.w       Comparison of algorithms for minimum spanning tree
      multiply.w         Using a parallel multiplication circuit
      queen.w            Graphs based on queen moves
      roget_components.w Strong components of a directed graph
      take_risc.w        Using a simple RISC computer circuit
      word_components.w  Connected components of word graphs
   d) Miscellaneous routines
      boilerplate.w      Legalese incorporated into all GraphBase programs
      gb_dijk.w          Variants of Dijkstra's algorithm for shortest paths
      gb_save.w          Converting graphs to ASCII files and vice versa
      gb_types.w         GraphBase reserved word formatting (used with @i)
      test_sample.w      Test routine for GraphBase installation
3) Miscellaneous files
      Makefile           Instructions to build everything with UNIX
      README             What you're now reading
      abstract.plaintex  Short explanation of what it's all about
      cities.texmap      TeXable map of the 128 cities in miles.dat      Demonstration changefile
      sample.correct     Correct primary output of test_sample
      test.correct       Correct secondary output of test_sample
      test.dat           Weird data used to test gb_io      Another demonstration changefile
      blank.w            Template to copy when writing a new CWEB program
      +The+Stanford+GraphBase+  Empty file at beginning of directory listing


First install CWEB (version 3.0 or greater), which can be found in various
archives; the master files reside at  Then, on a
UNIX-like system, edit the Makefile as Makefile instructs you, take a deep
breath, and "make tests". After you get the message
      Congratulations --- the tests have all been passed
you can then say "make install" (possibly changing to superuser if the
directories are protected). On other systems, build the programs yourself
by following the recipes in Makefile as closely as you can.

On a UNIX-like system, the process of building everything should produce
roughly the following actions (possibly with harmless warning messages):
ctangle gb_io.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  test_io.c gb_io.o -o test_io
ctangle gb_graph.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_graph.c
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  test_graph.c gb_graph.o -o test_graph
ctangle gb_flip.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_flip.c
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  test_flip.c gb_flip.o -o test_flip
OK, the gb_io routines seem to work!
Hey, I allocated 10000000 bytes successfully. Terrific...
OK, the gb_graph routines seem to work!
OK, the gb_flip routines seem to work!
ctangle gb_sort.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_sort.c
ctangle gb_basic.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_basic.c
ctangle gb_books.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_books.c
ctangle gb_econ.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_econ.c
ctangle gb_games.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_games.c
ctangle gb_gates.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_gates.c
ctangle gb_lisa.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_lisa.c
ctangle gb_miles.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_miles.c
ctangle gb_plane.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_plane.c
ctangle gb_raman.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_raman.c
ctangle gb_rand.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_rand.c
ctangle gb_roget.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_roget.c
ctangle gb_words.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_words.c
ctangle gb_dijk.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_dijk.c
ctangle gb_save.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR  -c  gb_save.c
rm -rf certified
ar rcv libgb.a gb_flip.o gb_graph.o gb_io.o gb_sort.o gb_basic.o gb_books.o \
  gb_econ.o gb_games.o gb_gates.o  gb_lisa.o gb_miles.o gb_plane.o gb_raman.o \
  gb_rand.o gb_roget.o  gb_words.o gb_dijk.o gb_save.o
ranlib libgb.a
ctangle test_sample.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR   -L. -L$LIBDIR -o test_sample test_sample.c -lgb
test_sample > sample.out
diff test.correct
diff sample.out sample.correct
rm sample.out test_io test_graph test_flip test_sample
echo "Congratulations --- the tests have all been passed."
touch certified
mkdir $SGBDIR
mkdir $DATADIR
cp -p anna.dat david.dat econ.dat games.dat homer.dat huck.dat jean.dat \
  lisa.dat miles.dat roget.dat words.dat $DATADIR
mkdir $LIBDIR
cp libgb.a $LIBDIR
cp -p boilerplate.w gb_types.w $CWEBINPUTS
cp -p gb_flip.h gb_graph.h gb_io.h gb_sort.h gb_basic.h gb_books.h gb_econ.h \
  gb_games.h gb_gates.h  gb_lisa.h gb_miles.h gb_plane.h gb_raman.h gb_rand.h \
  gb_roget.h  gb_words.h gb_dijk.h gb_save.h Makefile $INCLUDEDIR

Here "ctangle foo" is actually an abbreviation for the shell command
 "if test -r; then ctangle foo.w; else ctangle foo; fi"
which supplies a change file to ctangle if you have prepared one.

(The actions following "touch certified" are those of "make install", assuming
that "make tests" was done first; these are the only actions that may need
to be done as superuser. It's generally best not to be superuser until AFTER
the tests have been passed; otherwise who knows what might happen?)

If you want to install all the demonstration programs as well as the
GraphBase library, say "make installdemos" after "make install". This
causes the following sequence of actions to occur:
ctangle assign_lisa.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o assign_lisa assign_lisa.c -lgb
make book_components.c
ctangle book_components.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o book_components book_components.c -lgb
ctangle econ_order.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o econ_order econ_order.c -lgb
ctangle football.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o football football.c -lgb
ctangle girth.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o girth girth.c -lgb
ctangle ladders.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o ladders ladders.c -lgb
ctangle miles_span.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o miles_span miles_span.c -lgb
ctangle multiply.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o multiply multiply.c -lgb
ctangle queen.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o queen queen.c -lgb
ctangle roget_components.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o roget_components roget_components.c -lgb
ctangle take_risc.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o take_risc take_risc.c -lgb
ctangle word_components.w
cc -g -I$INCLUDEDIR -L. -L$LIBDIR -o word_components word_components.c -lgb
mkdir $BINDIR
mv assign_lisa book_components econ_order football girth ladders miles_span \
  multiply queen roget_components  take_risc word_components $BINDIR

Complete instructions appear in the book by D. E. Knuth entitled
 The Stanford GraphBase: A Platform for Combinatorial Computing
published jointly by ACM Press and Addison-Wesley (1993), ISBN 0-201-54275-7.

IF ALL ELSE FAILS send trouble reports to


* The master sources at contain all the files listed above
(uncompressed), as well as a compressed file sgb.tar.gz that generates them on
a UNIX system if you say "zcat sgb.tar.gz | tar xvpf -" using GNU's excellent
new compression/decompression scheme.

* The master sources also contain an ERRATA file listing all known errors
in the GraphBase book. (A reward of $2.56 is paid to the first finder of
an error; the errors listed in ERRATA are no longer worth anything.)

* Although several of the GraphBase programs have changed since the system
was first released, none of these changes have affected the generated graphs.
Corrections were only made to improve comments or to remove anomalies in cases
where some compilers had difficulty.

* It is planned to have subdirectories that contain change files for systems
that are particularly hard to accommodate. For example, a "DOS" subdirectory
might be provided for a certain well-known operating system. We will try
to give UPPERCASE names to such subdirectories so that they are easily spotted.

* A known bug in the HP-UX 9.01 ANSI C compiler (incorrect arithmetic
when an unsigned int is subtracted from a pointer) might cause trouble,
but Dan Eilers <> tracked it down and reports that patch
PHSS_3015 fixes the problem.

* Important note: The Stanford GraphBase programs do not obey the ANSI C
standard restriction on comparison of pointers. In fact, the author (Knuth)
confesses to being unaware until recently that such a restriction was
part of the standard; he wrote the code under the assumption that
pointers were essentially machine addresses. No problem occurs with
respect to |==| and |!=| comparison, but the code sometimes has a loop
like |for (p=hi;p>=lo;p--)| where |lo| is the base address of a
dynamically allocated array. Strictly speaking, |lo-1| is undefined.
In other places (e.g., sections 23 and 26 of GB_SAVE) we explicitly test
if one pointer is less than another; this code effectively sorts a set of
pointers of unknown origin by magnitude, so it assumes that |<| defines a
total ordering on pointers. In GB_GATES section 2 we cast a pointer
to unsigned long and test whether the result is |<=1|; conversely, the
constant 1 is read as a pointer via a union type in GB_SAVE section 10.

None of this is likely to cause any trouble unless your environment has
segmented architecture and 16-bit offsets within each segment. If you do
have such a system, your best bet is probably to get one of the free
and excellent ports of the GCC compiler. For example, DJ Delorie has
succeeded in porting GCC to the MSDOS environment. Alternatively,
a set of change files appears on directory sgb/ANSI.

* The code also assumes throughout that NULL is equivalent to zero (for
example, that pointer arrays delivered by |calloc| are full of NULLs).