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Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 1

©2000 by Bruce Eckel

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Winner, Software Development Magazine’s
1996 Jolt Award for Best Book of the Year

“This book is a tremendous achievement. You owe it to yourself to have a copy on your shelf. The chapter on iostreams is the most comprehensive and understandable treatment of that subject I’ve seen to date.”

Al Stevens
Contributing Editor, Doctor Dobbs Journal

“Eckel’s book is the only one to so clearly explain how to rethink program construction for object orientation. That the book is also an excellent tutorial on the ins and outs of C++ is an added bonus.”

Andrew Binstock
Editor, Unix Review

“Bruce continues to amaze me with his insight into C++, and Thinking in C++ is his best collection of ideas yet. If you want clear answers to difficult questions about C++, buy this outstanding book.”

Gary Entsminger
Author, The Tao of Objects

Thinking in C++ patiently and methodically explores the issues of when and how to use inlines, references, operator overloading, inheritance and dynamic objects, as well as advanced topics such as the proper use of templates, exceptions and multiple inheritance. The entire effort is woven in a fabric that includes Eckel’s own philosophy of object and program design. A must for every C++ developer’s bookshelf, Thinking in C++ is the one C++ book you must have if you’re doing serious development with C++.”

Richard Hale Shaw
Contributing Editor, PC Magazine

Comments from Readers:

Wonderful book ... Great stuff! Andrew Schulman, Doctor Dobbs Journal

An absolute, unqualified must. One of the most-used, most trusted books on my shelf.” TUG Lines

This is stuff a programmer can really use. IEEE Computer

A refreshing departure. PJ Plauger, Embedded Systems Programming magazine

...Eckel succeeds ... it’s so readable. Unix World

Should definitely be your first buy. C Gazette

A fantastic reference for C++! Michael Brandt, Senior Analyst/Programmer, Sydney, Australia

On our project at HRB Systems we call your book “The Answer Book”.  It is our C++ Bible for the project.  Curt Snyder, HRB Systems

Your book is really great, and I can’t thank you enough for making it available for free on the web. It’s one of the most thorough and useful references for C++ I’ve seen. Russell Davis

... the only book out there that even comes close to being actually readable when trying to learn the ropes of C++ (and the basics of good object oriented programming in general). Gunther Schulz, KawaiiSoft

I love the examples in your book. There’s stuff there that I never would have thought of (and some things that I didn’t know you could do)! Rich Herrick, Senior Associate Software Engineer, Lockheed-Martin Federal Systems, Owego, NY

It’s an amazing book. Any questions I have I refer to this online book. Helped in every case. I’m simply happy to have access to a book of this caliber. Wes Kells, Comp Eng. Student, SLC Kingston.

You are an invaluable resource and I greatly appreciate your books, email list etc... It seems every project I have worked on has been successful because of your insights. Justin Voshell

This is the book I have been looking for on C++. Thomas A. Fink, Managing Director, Trepp, LLC

Your books are authoritative yet easy to read. To my colleagues I call you the K&R of C++. Mark Orlassino, Senior Design Engineer, Harmon Industries, Inc., Hauppauge, NY

When I first started learning C++, your book “Thinking in C++” was my shining guide light in a dark tunnel.  It has been my endeavor to improve my C++ skills whenever possible, and to that effect, “Thinking in C++” has given me the strong foundation for my continuous improvement. Peter Tran, Senior Systems Analyst (IM), Compaq Computer Corporation

This book is the best general reference in my on-going quest to master C++. Most books explain some topics thoroughly but are deficient in others. “Thinking in C++” 2/E does not pass the buck to another book. When I have questions it has answers. Thomas Michel

I have a whole mountain of books and none of them make sense nor do they explain things properly. I have been dying for a good template and STL book. Then I decided to read your material and I was amazed. What you did was show how to write C++ with templates and STL without bogging down with details. What you did was what I expected of the C++ community, the next generation of C++ authors. As an author I AM IMPRESSED at your writing and explanation skills. You covered topics that nobody has properly covered before. Your approach is one from a person who has actually sat down and went through the material in detail. And then you questioned the sanity of the situation and what would be the problem areas. On my bookshelf, it will definitely be one of the necessary books, right beside Petzold. Christian Gross, consultant/mentor cgross@eusoft.com

I think your book is very, very, VERY good. I have compared it to others in the bookstore, and have found that your book actually teaches me basic C++ fundamentals while I learn the STL... a very nice experience to learn about both at once, hand-in-hand. I think your book is laid out very well, and explains things in an easy-to-understand fashion. Jeff Meininger, Software Developer, boxybutgood.com

Your book is the best by far of any I’ve seen. Please get it right so that we can all have an excellent and “reliable” reference work! And please hurry! We are desperate for a work of this quality! Steve Strickland, Live Minds (a Puzzle business)

(On Usenet) Unlike most other C++ authors, Eckel has made a career of teaching C++ and Java classes ONLY. He’s had the benefit of a GREAT deal of novice feedback, and the books reflect that. His books are not just about writing in C++/Java, but understanding the intent of the languages and the mindset that goes with thinking in them. Eckel’s also the best technical writer I’ve read since Jeff Duntemann. Very clear and easy to read. Don’t be put off by the apparent large size of his books. Either can be read in *less* than 21 days. :-} Randy Crawford, MRJ Technology Solutions, Fairfax VA

Your work is greatly appreciated and I thank you for helping me understand both C++ and Java better. Barry Wallin, Math/Computer Science Teacher, Rosemount High School, Rosemount, MN

I would like to thank you for your book “Thinking in C++” which is, with no doubt,  the best book I ever read about this subject. Riccardo Tarli - SW Engineer - R&D TXT Ingegneria Informatica - Italy

I have been reading both of your books, Thinking In Java and Thinking In C++. Each of these books is easily the best in its category. Ratnakarprasad H. Tiwari, Mumbai, India

... the “Debugging Hints” section is so valuable, I’m tempted to print it and keep it with me at all times. I think this section should be a mandatory part of any introductory class after the first one or two programming problems. Fred Ballard, Synectics Inc.

Your book is really a treasure trove of C++ knowledge. I feel like you give a good overview and then explain the nuts and bolts. Raymond Pickles, Antenna Section, Radar Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

As an Internal Medicine Specialist and Computer Scientist I spend a great deal of time trying to extract information from books and journals. My experience is that a good author is one who makes difficult concepts accessible, a great one makes it look almost easy. On this score you are certainly one of my top three technical writers. Keep up the good work. Dr. Declan O’Kane, Leicester, England

For my second-level C++ course, “Thinking in C++” is my constant reference and companion, and I urge my students to consult it regularly. I refer to the chapter on Operator Overloading constantly. The examples/code alone are worth the cost of the book many times over. So many books and development environments are predicated on the assumption that the only application for a programming language is for a Windows environment; it’s great to find and use a book which concentrates on C++ so we can prepare our students for careers in fields like embedded systems, networking, etc., which require real depth of understanding. Robert Chase, Professor, Sweet Briar College

I think it’s a fantastic intro to C++, especially for longtime dabblers like me – I often know “how,” but rarely “why,” and TIC2 is a godsend. Tony Likhite, System Administrator/DBA, Together Networks

After reading the first 80 pages of this book, I have a better understanding of oop then I've gotten out of the ton of books I've accumulated on the subject. Thanks... Rick Schneewind




Second Edition

Bruce Eckel
President, MindView Inc.

Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

Publisher: Alan Apt
Production Editor: Scott Disanno
Executive Managing Editor: Vince O'Brien
Vice President and Editorial Director: Marcia Horton
Vice President of Production and Manufacturing: David W. Riccardi
Project Manager: Ana Terry
Book Design, Cover Design and Cover Line Art:
Daniel Will-Harris, daniel@will-harris.com
Cover Watercolor: Bruce Eckel
Copy Editor: Stephanie English
Production Coordinator: Lori Bulwin
Editorial Assistant: Toni Holm
Marketing Managers: Jennie Burger, Bryan Gambrel

©2000 by Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc.
Published by Prentice Hall Inc.
Pearson Higher Education
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07632

The information in this book is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entitle with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by instructions contained in this book or by the computer software or hardware products described herein.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher or author, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. Any of the names used in the examples and text of this book are fictional; any relationship to persons living or dead or to fictional characters in other works is purely coincidental.

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-13-979809-9

Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London

Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney

Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., Toronto

Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., Mexico

Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi

Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo

Pearson Education Asia Ltd., Singapore

Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro


To my parents, my sister, and my brother

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Last Update:09/27/2001